Formating references in manuscripts for JBM

JBM uses the Vancouver system (also known as “author-number” system) of referencing.

  • Only articles that have been published or that are accepted for publication at a named publication should be cited in the reference list. The Vancouver system (also known as “author-number” system) of referencing should be used. References should be numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text in square brackets. If cited in tables or figure legends, number according to the first identification of the table or figure in the text.  Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should not appear in the list but should be cited in the text only (e.g. Smith A, 2000, unpublished data). Names of journals should be abbreviated in the style used in PubMed. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references.
  • If EndNote program is used for formatting references, please use the PLoS-Public Library of Science Style (download it here).
  • Citations to references in main text should appear as unsuperscripted numbers contained in square brackets, e.g., "It has been previously reported [2]."

Examples of references:

Journal articles

1. Ting AH, Schuebel KE, Herman JG, Baylin SB (2005) Short double-stranded RNA induces transcriptional gene silencing in human cancer cells in the absence of DNA methylation. Nat Genet 37: 906-910.

2. Yip KY, Cheng C, Bhardwaj N, Brown JB, Leng J, et al. (2012) Classification of human genomic regions based on experimentally determined binding sites of more than 100 transcription-related factors. Genome Biol 13: R48.


1. Bates B (1992) Bargaining for life: A social history of tuberculosis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 435 p.

Book Chapters

1.  Hansen B (1991) New York City epidemics and history for the public. In: Harden VA, Risse GB, editors. AIDS and the historian. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health. pp. 21-28.


Website citations should be formatted to include the following components: name of the web page or entire site, the organization creating or owning the site, date of the site is cited, and the URL to the page or site.  For example: 

1. MethPrimer. Li Lab, Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco. Cited on May 30, 2012. Available from: